Published Clinical Trials Using the Activator Adjusting Instrument (AAI)
The Activator Method is one of the most widely researched chiropractic techniques and the only instrument adjusting technique with clinical trials to support its efficacy. The following list of clinical trials demonstrate that there is sufficient published evidence that use of the Activator adjusting instrument results in therapeutic benefits equivalent to manual-thrust and/or diversified chiropractic manipulation.
- Effects of chiropractic treatment on blood pressure and anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial. Yates RG, Lamping DL, Abram NL, Wright C. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1988 Dec;11(6):484-8.
Main Results/Conclusions: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the active treatment condition. No significant changes occurred in the placebo and control conditions. Anxiety significantly decreased in the active and control conditions.
- Treatment and biomechanical assessment of patients with chronic sacroiliac joint syndrome. Osterbauer PJ, De Boer KF, Widmaier R, Petermann E, Fuhr AW. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1993 Feb;16(2):82-90.
Main Results/Conclusions: Activator proved beneficial in treatment of chronic Sacro-Iliac Joint Syndrome (SIJS); average Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores diminished from 28 to 13%.
- The immediate effect of activator vs. meric adjustment on acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Gemmell HA, Jacobson BH. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1995 Sep;18(7):453-6.
Main Results/Conclusions: Both interventions showed improvement in all outcome measures, but no statistical significance between groups.
- Comparison of two chiropractic techniques on pain and lateral flexion in neck pain patients: a pilot study. Yurkiw D, Mior S. Chiropractic Technique. 1996 Nov;8(4):155-162.
Main Results/Conclusions: No statistical significance between interventions. Both interventions showed immediate improvement in all outcome measures.
- The effects of spinal manipulation on the intensity of emotional arousal in phobic subjects exposed to a threat stimulus: a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Peterson KB. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1997 Nov-Dec;20(9):602-6.
Main Results/Conclusions: Activator-assisted spinal manipulation significantly decreased the intensity of emotional arousal reported by phobic subjects.
- A pilot randomized clinical trial on the relative effect of instrumental (MFMA) versus manual (HVLA) manipulation in the treatment of cervical spine dysfunction. Wood TG, Colloca CJ, Matthews R. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2001 May;24(4):260-71.
Main Results/Conclusions: No statistical significance between interventions. Both Activator and manual manipulation showed beneficial effects in reducing pain and disability while increasing range of motion.
- Chiropractic treatment of temporomandibular disorders using the activator adjusting instrument: a prospective case series. DeVocht JW, Long CR, Zeitler DL, Schaeffer W. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2003 Sep;26(7):421-5.
Main Results/Conclusions: Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders improved with the course of Activator Methods treatment.
- A randomized clinical trial of manual versus mechanical force manipulation in the treatment of sacroiliac joint syndrome. Shearar KA, Colloca CJ, White HL. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2005 Sep;28(7):493-501.
Main Results/Conclusions: No statistical significance between interventions. Both interventions showed immediate improvement in all outcome measures.
- Immediate effect of activator trigger point therapy and myofascial band therapy on non-specific neck pain in patients with upper trapezius trigger points compared to sham ultrasound: A randomised controlled trial. Blikstad A, Gemmell H. Clinical Chiropractic (2008) 11, 23—29.
Main Results/Conclusions: Activator trigger point therapy appeared to be more effective than myofascial band therapy or sham ultrasound in treating patients with non-specific neck pain and upper trapezius trigger points.
- Relative immediate effect of ischaemic compression and activator trigger point therapy on active upper trapezius trigger points: A randomised trial. Gemmell H, Allen A. Clinical Chiropractic (2008) 11,175—181.
Main Results/Conclusions: Both interventions showed improvement in all outcome measures, but no statistical significance between groups
- Effects of a manually assisted mechanical force on cutaneous temperature. Roy RA, Boucher JP, Comtois AS. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2008 Mar;31(3):230-6.
Main Results/Conclusions: Before treatment, the cutaneous temperature (CT) was significantly different between the ipsilateral and the contralateral sides for all subgroups consistent with a positive L4/L5 isolation test. At 10 minutes after intervention, CT increased significantly for the treatment group but not for the sham and control groups. Furthermore, after manipulation using the Activator with a thrust respecting the standard loading principle of the instrument, it produced a secondary cooling at 5 minutes followed by a rewarming at 10 minutes consistent with a neurophysiological response.
- Heart rate variability modulation after manipulation in pain-free patients vs patients in pain. Roy RA, Boucher JP, Comtois AS. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 May;32(4):277-86.
Main Results/Conclusions: No statistical significance between interventions except for control group. Both interventions showed similar modulation of the HRV.
- Relative effectiveness and adverse effects of cervical manipulation, mobilisation and the activator instrument in patients with sub-acute non-specific neck pain: results from a stopped randomised trial. Gemmell H, Miller P. Chiropr Osteopat. 2010 Jul 9;18:20.
Main Results/Conclusions: There were no significant differences between the groups at any of the follow up points. All groups exhibited long-term improvement without one being superior to the other.
- Mechanical vs manual manipulation for low back pain: an observational cohort study. Schneider MJ, Brach J, Irrgang JJ, Abbott KV, Wisniewski SR, Delitto A. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2010 Mar-Apr;33(3):193-200.
Main Results/Conclusions: This study found neither intervention superior to the other, while providing the chiropractic profession with valuable information on the influence of treatment expectation.
- Inflammatory response following a short-term course of chiropractic treatment in subjects with and without chronic low back pain. Roy RA, Boucher JP, Comtois AS. J Chiropr Med. 2010 Sep;9(3):107-14.
Main Results/Conclusions: A total of 9 chiropractic lower back manipulations with the Activator caused the mediators of inflammation to present a normalization response in individuals suffering from chronic low back pain.
- Changes in Pressure Pain Thresholds and Basal Electromyographic Activity After Instrument-Assisted Spinal Manipulative Therapy in Asymptomatic Participants: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Yu X, Wang X, Zhang J, Wang Y. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2012 Jul;35(6):437-45.
Main Results/Conclusions: The application of Activator instrument resulted in an immediate and widespread hypoalgesic effect with local muscle relaxation in asymptomatic participants.
- Comparison of paraspinal cutaneous temperature measurements between subjects with and without chronic low back pain. Roy RA, Boucher JP, Comtois AS. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2013 Jan;36(1):44-50.
Main Results/Conclusions: The Paraspinal Cutaneous Temperature (PCT) readings for subjects with chronic low back pain were lower than the asymptomatic, nontreatment group. The PCT temperature of the treatment group normalized after nine (9) treatments.
- A pilot study of a chiropractic intervention for management of chronic myofacial TMD. DeVocht JW, Goertz CM, Hondras MA, Long CR, Schaeffer W, Thomann L, Spector M, Stanford CM. J Am Dent Assoc. 2013 Oct;144(10).
Main Results/Conclusions: 721 potential participants were screened, 80 enrolled, and 53 completed the 6 month assessment. In the end, the logistics were found to be manageable. NOTE: This pilot study was funded by a NCCAM TMD study grant (2008) and was a necessary step in preparation for a larger Randomized Control Trial that will provide clinicians with information helpful when discussing treatment options for those who suffer with TMD.
- Comparison of Spinal Manipulation Methods and Usual Medical Care for Acute and Subacute Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Schneider M, Haas M, Glick R, Stevans J, Landsittel D. Spine 2015;40:209-217.
Main Results/Conclusions: This study found that manual-thrust manipulation (MTM) provided slightly greater short-term (at 4 weeks) reductions in self-reported disability and pain scores compared with mechanical-assisted manipulation (Activator) or usual medical care (UMC); Activator was more effective for pain reduction than usual medical care in the first two-weeks. In addition, the benefit of MTM seen at end-of-intervention was no longer statistically significant at 3 or 6 months. All interventions seem similar in effect; they lead to decreased pain and disability.
- A Randomized Controlled Trial to Measure the Effects of Specific Thoracic Chiropractic Adjustments on Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate. Roffers SD, Menke JM, Morris DH. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015.
Main Results/Conclusions: Specific thoracic spinal manipulations affected three measures: blood pressure, pulse rate, and changes in hypertension classification only in the active treatment group. Activator instrument’s utility for sham settings was supported for future efficacy studies.
- Comparing Outcome Measures in Lumbar Spine Manipulations: Dynamic X-Rays and Oswestry Index.Roy RA, Bouchera JP, Comtois AS. Spine Research, Spine Research. 2016 Vol. 2 No. 1: 12 (iMedPub Journal)
Main Results/Conclusions: Dynamic radiographs and the Oswestry index appear to be sensitive enough to detect a strong effect size after a 9-treatment course of therapy. In addition, a significant correlation was found between pre- and post-treatment measurements of the Oswestry index and dynamic radiographs which could help validate the necessity of continued care.
- Manual and Instrument Applied Cervical Manipulation for Mechanical Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Gorrell LM, Beath K, Engel RM. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2016 Jun;39(5):319-29.
Main Results/Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a single cervical manipulation is capable of producing both immediate and short-term benefits for mechanical neck pain. The study also may demonstrate that not all manipulative techniques have the same effect. The results reported in this study are consistent with the hypothesis that the biomechanical characteristics of different spinal manipulation techniques may be responsible for varying clinical effects. However, the results are not definitive, and further research investigating the nature of these changes is warranted.
- A Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial Assessing the Effects of Applying a Force to C5 by a Mechanically Assisted Instrument (MAI) on Referred Pain to the Shoulder. Hardas GM, Murrell GA. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Sep 6.
Main Results/Conclusions: The major effect of applying an MAI to the level of C5 of the spine in referred shoulder pain is improved shoulder strength for internal rotation in this randomized double-blinded clinical trial.
The following systematic review of the literature demonstrates that there is sufficient published evidence that use of the Activator adjusting instrument results in therapeutic benefits equivalent to manual-thrust and/or diversified chiropractic manipulation.
Clinical effectiveness of the activator adjusting instrument in the management of musculo-skeletal disorders: a systematic review of the literature. Huggins T, Boras AL, Gleberzon BJ, Popescu M, Bahry LA. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2012 Mar;56(1):49-57.
Main Results/Conclusions: “This systematic review of 8 clinical trials involving the use of the AAI (Activator) found reported benefits to patients with spinal pain and trigger points, although these results were not statistically significantly different when compared to the use of HVLA manual manipulation or trigger point therapy.”
More in this category: Determining spinal level using the inferior angle of the scapula as a reference landmark: a retrospective analysis of 50 radiographs » A Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial Assessing the Effects of Applying a Force to C5 by a Mechanically Assisted Instrument (MAI) on Referred Pain to the Shoulder » Characteristics of Paraspinal Muscle Spindle Response to Mechanically Assisted Spinal Manipulation: A Preliminary Report » Manual and Instrument Applied Cervical Manipulation for Mechanical Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. » Manual and Instrument Applied Cervical Manipulation for Mechanical Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. » Attenuation Effect of Spinal Manipulation on Neuropathic and Postoperative Pain Through Activating Endogenous Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin 10 in Rat Spinal Cord » Comparing Outcome Measures in Lumbar Spine Manipulations: Dynamic X-Rays and Oswestry Index » A Randomized Controlled Trial to Measure the Effects of Specific Thoracic Chiropractic Adjustments on Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate » Neural Response During a Mechanically Assisted Spinal Manipulation in an Animal Model: A Pilot Study » Comparison of spinal manipulation methods and usual medical care for acute and subacute low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. » In Vitro Biomechanical Evaluation of Single Impulse and Repetitive Mechanical Shockwave Devices Utilized for Spinal Manipulative Therapy » Safety & Effectiveness: The Foundations of Success » The Chiropractic Report – May 2014 » Neural responses to the mechanical parameters of a high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation: effect of preload parameters. » A pilot study of a chiropractic intervention for management of chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder. » Review of methods used by chiropractors to determine the site for applying manipulation. » The Activator Story: Development of a New Concept in Chiropractic. » Effects of thrust amplitude and duration of high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation on lumbar muscle spindle responses to vertebral position and movement. » Comparison of paraspinal cutaneous temperature measurements between subjects with and without chronic low back pain. » Chiropractic management of a veteran with lower back pain associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hypertrophy and degenerative disk disease » Changes in pressure pain thresholds and Basal electromyographic activity after instrument-assisted spinal manipulative therapy in asymptomatic participants: a randomized, controlled trial. » Clinical effectiveness of the Activator adjusting instrument in the management of musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review of the literature. » Chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for a geriatric patient with low back pain and comorbidities of cancer, compression fractures, and osteoporosis » Resolution of Breech Presentation Confirmed by Ultrasound Following Webster’s Technique » Evaluation of Mechanical Allodynia in an Animal Immobilization Model using the Von Frey Method » Cerebral Metabolic Changes in Men After Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation for Neck Pain » Interexaminer Reliability of Supine Leg Checks for Discriminating Leg-Length Inequality » Diagnostic Accuracy of the Clinical Examination in Identifying the Level of Herniation in Patients with Sciatica » Measuring the Effects of Specific Cervical Chiropractic Adjustments on Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate: A Randomized Controlled Trial » Intermittent low back pain referred from a uterine adenomyosis: a case report » Fall Risk Profile and Quality-of-Life Status of Older Chiropractic Patients » Immediate Effects of the Audible Pop from a Thoracic Spine Thrust Manipulation on the Autonomic Nervous System and Pain: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial » Inflammatory response following a short-term course of chiropractic treatment in subjects with and without chronic low back pain. » Relative effectiveness and adverse effects of cervical manipulation, mobilisation and the activator instrument in patients with sub-acute non-specific neck pain: results from a stopped randomised trial. » Mechanical vs manual manipulation for low back pain: an observational cohort study. » Chiropractic management of a 5-year-old boy with urinary and bowel incontinence » Chiropractic care of a 6 year old girl with neck pain; headaches; hand, leg and foot pain; and other nonmusculoskeletal symptoms » The safety and effectiveness of pediatric chiropractic: a survey of chiropractors and parents in a practice-based research network » Heart Rate Variability Modulation After Manipulation in Pain-Free Patients vs Patients in Pain » Interexaminer Reliability of a Leg Length Analysis Procedure Among Novice and Experienced Practitioners » Technique Systems used by post-1980 graduates of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College practicing in five Canadian provinces: a preliminary survey » Relative Immediate Effect of Ischaemic Compression and Activator Trigger Point Therapy on Active Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Randomized Trial » Treatment of Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia using Instrument-Assisted Manipulation of the Fourth Rib: A 6 Year Study » Effects of a Manually Assisted Mechanical Force on Cutaneous Temperature » Immediate effect of activator trigger point therapy and myofascial band therapy on non-specific neck pain in patients with upper trapezius trigger points compared to sham ultrasound: A randomised controlled trial. » Interexaminer Reliability of the Prone Leg Length Analysis Procedure » Variability of Force Magnitude and Force Duration in Manual and Instrument-Based Manipulation Techniques » Three-Dimensional Vertebral Motions Produced by Mechanical Force Spinal Manipulation » Activator as a theraputic instrument: Survey of usage and opinions amongst members of the British Chiropractic Association » A Hypothesis of Chronic Back Pain: Ligament Subfailure Injuries Lead to Muscle Control Dysfunction » Spinal Manipulation Reduces Pain and Hyperalgesia after Lumbar Intervertebral Foramen Inflammation in the Rat » Chiropractic Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders Using the Activator Adjusting Instrument and Protocol » Spinal Manipulation Alters Electromyographic Activity of Paraspinal Muscles: A Descriptive Study » A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Relative Effectiveness of Manual Versus Mechanical Force Chiropractic Adjustments in the Management of Sacroiliac Joint Syndrome » Status of Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique, Theory and Practice » A review of the literature pertaining to the efficacy, safety, educational requirements, uses and usage of mechanical adjusting devices. Part 2 of 2 » Active Trunk Extensor Contributions to Dynamic Posteroanterior Lumbar Spinal Stiffness » A review of the literature pertaining to the efficacy, safety, educational requirements, uses and usage of mechanical adjusting devices. Part 1 of 2 » Neuromechanical Characterization of in Vivo Lumbar Spinal Manipulation. Part II. Neurophysiological Response » Neuromechanical Characterization of In Vivo Lumbar Spinal Manipulation. Part I. Vertebral Motion » Chiropractic Management of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A Report of Two Cases » Chiropractic Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders Using the Activator Adjusting Instrument: A Prospective Case Series » Lateral Cervical Curve Changes in Patients Receiving Chiropractic Care After A Motor Vehicle Collision: A Retrospective Case Series » Comparison of Dynamic Posteroanterior Spinal Stiffness to Plain Film Radiographic Images of Lumbar Disk Height » Chiropractic Name techniques in Canada: a continued look at demographic trends and their impact on issues of jurisprudence » A Review of Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique » A Novel Method For Assessing Elbow Pain Resulting From Epicondylitis » Force-deformation response of the lumbar spine: a sagittal plane model of posteroanterior manipulation and mobilization » Chiropractic Treatment of Postsurgical Neck Syndrome With Mechanical Force, Manually Assisted Short-Lever Spinal Adjustments » The Effective Forces Transmitted by High-Speed, Low-Amplitude Thoracic Manipulation » Stiffness and Neuromuscular Reflex Response of the Human Spine to Posteroanterior Manipulative Thrusts In Patients With Low Back Pain » Rating Specific Chiropractic Technique Procedures for Common Low Back Conditions » The diagnostic performance of vertebral displacement measurements derived from ultrasonic indentation in an in vivo model of degenerative disc disease » Fibromyalgia & Chronic Myofascial Pain Syndrome – A Survival Manual » Chiropractic “Name Techniques”: A Review of the Literature » A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial on the Relative Effect of Instrumental Versus Manual Thrust Manipulation in the Treatment of Cervical Spine Dysfunction. » In Vivo Transient Vibration Assessment of the Normal Human Thoracolumbar Spine » Muscular and Soft-Tissue Contributions of Dynamic Posteroanterior Spinal Stiffness » Lumbar Erector Spinae Reflex Responses to Mechanical Force, Manually- Assisted Thoracolumbar and Sacroiliac Joint Manipulation in Patients with Low Back Pain » Correlation of L5 Dynamic Posteroanterior Spinal Stiffness to Plain Film Radiographic Images of Lumbosacral Disc Height » Neurophysiological Response to Intraoperative Lumbosacral Spinal Manipulation » Name techniques in Canada: current trends in utilization rates and recommendations for their inclusion at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College » The mechanics of spinal manipulation » Dynamic Response of the Human Lumbar Spine: A 5 DOF Lumped Parameter Time and Frequency Domain Model » Evaluating Teaching Effectiveness of the Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique Leg Check Based on Interexaminer Reliability » Electromyographic Responses To Mechanical Force, Manually Assisted Spinal Manipulative Therapy » Chiropractic Care for Patients Aged 55 Years and Older: Report from a Practice-Based Research Program » Mechanical Force Spinal Manipulation Increases Trunk Muscle Strength Assessed By Electromyography: A Comparative Controlled Clinical Trial » Reflex Responses Associated with Activator Treatment » Theory of small vertebral motions: an analytical model compared to data » Activator hand-held manual device included as part of the Medicare Carriers Manual Part 3 Chapter II Coverage of Chiropractic Services. » Interexaminer Reliability of Activator Method’s Relative Leg-Length Evaluation in the Prone Extended Position » Chiropractic Treatment of Coccygodynia via External Instrumental Adjusting Procedures utilizing Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique. » Muscular and Mechanical Behavior of the Lumbar Spine in Response to Dynamic Posteroanterior Forces » Validation of the Force and Frequency Characteristics of the Activator Adjusting Instrument: Effectiveness as a Mechanical Impedance Measurement Tool » Grand Rounds Discussion: Patient with acute low back pain » Treatment of Cervical Disc Protrusions Via Instrumental Chiropractic Adjustment. » Treatment of Symptomatic Lumbar Disc Herniation Utilizing Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique » Measurement of Soft Tissue Strain in Response to Consecutively Increased Compressive and Distractive Loads on a Friction-Based Test Bed » Movements of Vertebrae During Manipulative Thrusts to Unembalmed Human Cadavers » Safety in chiropractic practice. Part II: Treatment to the upper neck and the rate of cerebrovascular incidents. » The effects of spinal manipulation on the intensity of emotional arousal in phobic subjects exposed to a threat stimulus: a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. » Letters to the Editor | Safety in chiropractic practice. Part II: Treatment to the upper neck and the rate of cerebrovascular incidents. » Technique Overview: Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique » Engineering ─ In Vivo Transient Vibration Analysis of the Normal Human Spine » Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique » Comparison of Two Chiropractic Techniques on Pain and Lateral Flexion in Neck Pain Patients: a Pilot Study » Manipulation and mobilization of the cervical spine. A systematic review of the literature. » Three-Dimensional Head Kinematics and Cervical Range of Motion in the Diagnosis of Patients with Neck Trauma. » Oscillations of the Vertebrae in Spinal Manipulative Therapy » On Sounds and Reflexes of Cavitation » Back to Basics…Technology Assessment of the Chiropractic Subluxation » A Biomechanical Model of the Lumbar Spine During Upright Isometric, Flexion, Extension, and Lateral Bending » The Immediate Effect of Activator vs. Meric Adjustment on Acute Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial » Posterior Calcaneal Subluxation: An Important Consideration in Chiropractic Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis (Heel Spur Syndrome) » Instrumental Chiropractic Treatment of Frozen Shoulder Associated With Mixed Metastatic Carcinoma » Chiropractic Treatment of Frozen Shoulder Syndrome (Adhesive Capsulitis) Using Mechanical Force Manually Assisted Short Lever Adjusting Procedures. » Description and Analysis of Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique » Leg Length Inequality and the Side of Low Back Pain – A Pilot Study » Reflex Responses Associated with Manipulative Treatments on the Thoracic Spine: A Pilot Study » The Audible Release Associated with Joint Manipulation » Optoelectric Measurement of Changes in Leg Length Inequality Resulting from Isolation Tests » Conservative Treatment of Torn Medial Meniscus via Mechanical Force, Manually Assisted Short Lever Chiropractic Adjusting Procedures. » Measurement and Analysis of the In Vivo Posteroanterior Impulse Response of the Human Thoracolumbar Spine: A Feasibility Study » Dependence of the Delivered Force on the Force Setting on the Activator Adjusting Instrument » Instantaneous Helical Axis Estimation From 3-D Video Data in Neck Kinematics for Whiplash Diagnostics. » Optoelectric Measurement of Leg Length Inequalities Before, During, and After Isolation Tests. » The Activator Story: Development of a New Concept in Chiropractic » Biomechanical Characterization (fingerprinting) of Five Novel Methods of Cervical Spine Manipulation » Relationship between Preload and Peak Forces during Spinal Manipulative Treatments » Three-Dimensional Head Axis of Rotation During Tracking Movements: A Tool for Assessing Neck Neuromechanical Function » Optoelectric Measurement of Leg Length Changes During Isolation Tests » Responsiveness of leg alignment changes associated with articular pressure testing to spinal manipulation: the use of a randomized clinical trial design to evaluate a diagnostic test with a dichotomous outcome. » Reactivity of Leg Alignment to Articular Pressure Testing: Evaluation of a Diagnostic Test using a Randomized Crossover Clinical Trial Approach » Measurement and Analysis of Interspinous Kinematics » Evaluating Mechanical Force Manually Assisted Short Lever adjusting using an Anthropomorphic model » Treatment and biomechanical assessment of patients with chronic sacroiliac joint syndrome. » Treatment of Bell’s Palsy by Mechanical Force, Manually Assisted Chiropractic Adjusting and High-voltage Electrotherapy » Treatment of Bell’s Palsy by Mechanical Force, Manually Assisted Chiropractic Adjusting and High-voltage Electrotherapy » Three-dimensional Head Kinematics and Clinical Outcome of Patients with Neck Injury Treated with Spinal Manipulative Therapy: a Pilot Study » Vertebral Subluxation and Otitis Media: A Case Study » Motion Analysis as a Means to Objectify Changes in Apparent (Prone) Leg Length Inequality » Treatment of Chronic Sciatica by Mechanical Force, Manually Assisted, Short Lever Adjusting and a Video Assisted Stretching Program: A Quantitative Case Study » Non-Specific Short and Long Lever Chiropractic Adjusting: Principles and Practice » Mechanical Force, Manually Assisted, Short Lever Chiropractic Adjustment » Chiropractic Treatment Of Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain In A Geriatric Population: A Practitioner-Scientist Protocol » Cervical spine: manipulative skill and performance considerations » The current status of Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique, theory, and training » Interexaminer Reliability of Eight Evaluative Dimensions of Lumbar Segmental Abnormality » Spinal learning: central modulation of pain processing and long-term alteration of interneuronal excitability as a result of nociceptive peripheral input. » Low Force Chiropractic Care of Two Patients with Sciatic Neuropathy and Lumbar Disc Herniation » Precise measurement of functional leg length inequality and changes due to cervical spine rotation in pain-free students. » Interexaminer Reliability of an Isolation Test for the Identification of Upper Cervical Subluxation » Interexaminer Reliability of Relative Leg Length Evaluations in the Prone Extended Position » Skin Accelerometer Displacement and Relative Bone Movement of Adjacent Vertebrae in Response to Chiropractic Percussion Thrusts » Effects of Chiropractic Treatment on Blood Pressure and Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial » Reliability of the Derifield-Thompson test for leg length inequality, and use of the test to demonstrate cervical adjusting efficacy. » Effects of altered afferent articular input on sensation, proprioception, muscle tone and sympathetic reflex responses. » A model for the evaluation of chiropractic methods. » Accuracy of Piezoelectric Accelerometers Measuring Displacement of a Spinal Adjusting Instrument » The Force of the Activator® Adjusting Instrument » Inter- and intra-examiner reliability of leg-length differential measurement: a preliminary study. » Activator Adjusting For Acute Torticollis »